Thomas Jefferson is generally known as the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, third president of the United States. Thomas Jefferson was a collection of many talents. He plays his role as a collector of a massive amount of books, politicians, lawyers, and inventors of a new nation.
Thomas Jefferson was a man of history changer, history maker. He makes his living with a different work, which was mostly relational with American History. We can divide the whole life of Thomas Jefferson, several divisions. We are discussing here various works of his whole life: from birth to death.
Jefferson’s born and childhood
Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, in Shadwell Plantation, which was the Colony of Virginia. Jefferson was the third of ten children. His father was Peter Jefferson, and his mother was Jane Randolph. Jefferson’s father was a planter and surveyor. He lost his father when he was only fourteen. He became the owner of 5000 acres of land by inheriting from his father.
Jefferson’s education and family life
Jefferson started his primary education with tutors at Tuckahoe. He was entered into an English School at age five. At age nine, he attended a local school and studying the natural world. He was also studying Latin, Greek, and French. From 1758 to 1760, he studied science, History, and Maury’s family. In that period, Jefferson befriends many American Indians and stay with Maury’s family for two years.
At age 16, Jefferson studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy at the College of William & Mary in Virginia. Jefferson was introduced to George Wythe and Francis Fauquier and met with them at their Friday dinner parties.
They discussed politics and philosophy. Jefferson wrote that he “heard more common good sense, more rational & philosophical conversations than in all the rest of my life.” Jefferson also studied History, law, religion, ethics, several areas of science deeply. George Wythe gives his entire library to Jefferson. But the library was destroyed by fire in 1770. He established his second library with almost 1250 titles, and it grew to 6500 volumes. He sold his second library to the U.S. government for 23950 USD. But he realized that book is part of the parcel in his life. So he wrote to Adams, “I can not leave without books.” At last, he established his third and last library, which was almost 2000 volumes.
In 1767, Jefferson was started his law career at the Virginia bar. He always fights for freedom and democracy. He Said, “everyone comes into the world with a right to his person and using it at his own will. ” He applied this sentiment when he wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Jefferson’s Marriage and Family
Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton in 1772, who was his third cousin and a widow. After marriage, Jefferson started to live with her in the mountaintop home, Monticello. The marriage was the happiest period of Thomas Jefferson’s life. In his ten years of marriage, Jefferson was the father of six children. After died Martha’s father, the couple owned 135 slaves, 11000 acres.
But a few months later of her last child born, Martha died in September 1782. Before her death, Martha took a promise from Jefferson to never marry again. Jefferson never forgot his promise and never married again.
Politician Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson played an important role in United States politics. He was democratic and republican too. Let to know politician Thomas Jefferson.
Role of Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson was the key person of the Declaration of Independence. He was the youngest delegate to the second continental congress at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. John Adams supported him in the declaration committee of Independence. Jefferson proposed a draft of the Declaration of Independence, and other members made some changes. Finally, On June 28, the Declaration was presented to the nation. He believed in the sentence, “all men are created equal.”
Jefferson played a vital role in the committee to establish a system for the new republic in the session of 1783 – 1784. In 1784, after his wife’s death, he moved to Paris with his daughter Pasty. Then he was assigned as the minister to the French. He said, “I succeed. No man can replace him”. Jefferson chose his brother as Domestic Staff. He used to code for his important communication. Jefferson started a new journey in September For United States. President George Washington was chosen for the first Secretary of State.
Jefferson conflicted with others for the national debt and permanent issue of Capital. Finally, He left the cabinet. In May 1792, Jefferson wrote to President and urged a party that would defend democracy. It reflected the principles of the Democratic and Republican parties. Jefferson and other politicians supported state’s rights and local control.
In 1796, Jefferson lost the electoral college vote to John Adams by 71- 68 in the presidential campaign. As a result, Jefferson was elected as Vice President. He introduced an “honorable and easy” role, which allowed freely debate on procedural issues. In 1800, he published “A manual of Parliamentary Practice. ” Though Jefferson admired U.S leadership, he always thought the Federalist party was lead in the wrong direction.
Election of 1800 and Presidency
Jefferson again competed for the presidential election in 1800. John Adam’s government was weakened to people for unpopular activities such as taxes and the Quasi-War. Historian marked the election as one of the most acrimonious in the annals of American History.
Jefferson and vice-president candidate Aaron Burr got the equal vote of the total. On February 17, 1801, Jefferson was elected for President, and Aaron Burr for vice president after got 30 – 6 votes. Jefferson started his presidency on March 4, 1801, which was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall. He disliked formal etiquette and arrived alone. He declared, “We have been called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all republicans, We are all Federalists.”
First Barbary War and Louisiana Purchase
Before Independence, American merchant ships were protected by Royal Navy from Barbary Cost pirates. But after Independence, U.S. merchant ships were attacked by pirates. In 1801, he authorized U.S. Navy to show force in the Atlantic. He successfully agreed to congress for the first foreign war, which was called the “First Barbary War.”
Spain hand-over Louisiana in 1800, France. Jefferson realized it would be harmful to the United States. Jefferson instructed James Monroe and Rover R. Livingston to discuss with Napoleon to purchase New Orleans and adjacent coastal areas. In April 1803, France sold 827,987 square miles to the United States, which makes double in size. It was ratified by the senate for 24-7 votes.
Second term Presidency
After completing a successful first term, Jefferson was re-elected. Jefferson took George Clinton as his running mate. It was the result of the Louisiana Purchase, a strong economy, and low taxes. Jefferson was elected for 162 – 14 votes. Jefferson proposed to build roads and canals, which distributed for several states.
Jefferson declined the international slave trade. He denounced it as “violations of human rights.” Jefferson signed the Act prohibiting the Importation of Slaves. In Haiti, Jefferson allowed arms for the slave independence movement. Jefferson’s Grandson was the first child born in the White House in 1806.
Jefferson declared to boycott of British products. In 1806, congress passed the Non- Importation Acts. Though it never enforced. In 1807, when HMS Leopard fired to USS Chesapeake, Jefferson made him to war.
Post-Presidency period of Jefferson
After left for the presidency, Jefferson moved him to educational interests. He sold his books to the Library of Congress. With this money, he built the University of Virginia. He made his routine by early rising, writing letters. Jefferson spent his leisure time with his family in the gardens. Jefferson reflected his ideas at the University of Virginia. He liked the library rather than the Church.
Jefferson’s health went to bad from 1825 due to several diseases. He declined the invitation to attend the anniversary celebration of the Declaration. Jefferson died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. After Jefferson died, people discovered a gold locket that contains Jefferson’s wife’s brown hair.